The Gap, Inc. is an American clothing retailer based in San Francsico. Gap is just one of the corporation's brand, which also includes Banana Republic, Old Navy, Athleta and Piper Lime.
Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald and Doris Fisher. Capitalizing on the current "counter culture" trend of 1969, the store originally sold Levi's jeans (price at that time: $7 US) and LP records for the youth market. The store was opened with just $63,000 in capital but by 1970, sales topped $2 million, and a second store was opened in San Jose. By 1973, the chain had grown to 25 stores and was spreading across the United States. The company began selling its own private-label clothing in 1974.
The Gap, Inc. acquired Banana Republic, then a small venture that offered safari-themed clothing, in 1983. Banana Republic's image and product lines were made over to become the upscale apparel store known by consumers today. The Gap, Inc. then launched Old Navy in 1994, to cover the lower-priced end of the retail clothing market. Shoe retailer Piperlime was created in 2006, and the company rounded out its offerings with Athleta, an athletic apparel retailer for women, which they acquired in 2009.
Today, The Gap, Inc. has more than 3,100 stores worldwide, covering the United States, United Kingdom (the location of the first international store), Canada, China, France, Ireland, Japan and Italy. Franchise retail outlets are also present in Asia, Australia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa.
The company is known for its quality clothing, the memorable advertising campaigns for all the stores under its corporate umbrella and for its social activism. Gap was a participant in the Product Red project, donating 50% of its Product Red profits to global causes. By 2011, Product Red has raised more than $170 million for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Fragrances for Gap and its brand Banana Republic are produced on collaboration with Inter Parfums, Inc. The first Gap-branded offerings were four unisex scents—Grass, Earth, Day and Heaven—launched in 1994. The company continues to produce new fragrances for men and women has expanded its fragrance line to include accompanying body care products.
Hermès is a French luxury goods house founded in 1837 by Thierry Hermes. Originally focused on equestrian accessories, the company has evolved over time into leather handbags, scarves, accessories, fashion and fragrance.
For Hermès, the perfume adventure begins in 1951 with Eau d’Hermès, composed by Edmond Roudnitska, one of the greatest creative spirits of the world of fragrances.
Ten years later, the birth of Calèche, the establishment’s first women’s perfume, confirmed the involvement of Hermès in the craft of perfume creation. Since then, fragrance has followed fragrance, each signed by the great names of perfume design. The arrival of Jean-Claude Ellena, in 2004, as the in-house perfumer for Hermès, was a decisive step. As an artist of olfactory emotion, an aesthete who goes beyond scale and material, he shares Hermès' sense of craftsmanship and expertise.
The encounter between Edmond Roudnitska and Émile Hermès (grandson of founder Thierry Hermès) gave birth to Eau d’Hermès, which remains one of the crowning glories of French perfumery.
French Connection UK, also known as fcuk, was founded by Stephen Marks in London in England in 1972. fcuk has specialized in the fashion retail sector, selling clothes, shoes, accessories and a small selection of beauty products for women and men. fcuk offer fashion clothing in the upper mid price sector in order to distinguish the brand from cheaper competitors but to still be affordable. The brand is globally successful.
Enzo Ferrari founded Scuderia Ferrari in 1929 as a sponsor of motorsport events and drivers and manufacturer of race cars. Initially Ferrari worked with Alfa Romeo and other and supplied them and other competitors with race cars. When in 1947 the production of street-legal vehicles began, the company changed their name to Ferrari S.p.A.
Today we know Ferrari as one of the big names and sponsors of the Formula One motorsport circuit and as a lifestyle brand that offers luxury cars. The brand's logo, a black horse on a yellow background, is world-famous. Milestones in the company's history were motorsport grand prix wins, the successful launch of road cars and the so-called supercars.
In 1999 Ferrari made their first steps into a completely new direction by launching the brand's first perfume, Ferrari Black. The oriental composition with sweet notes has been a commercial success since it had hit the shelves. While their cars are financially out of reach for most people, the fragrance gives the wearer the feeling of owning a piece of merchandise from a world-famous and exclusive luxury brand. In order to bring a piece of Ferrari to more and more homes, the brand soon launched their second fragrance, another one for men, in 2001. The name of the woody and mossy scent is Ferrari No. 1. In 2003 a new scent composed of elegant notes around an intense patchouli with the well thought-out name of Ferrari Racing was launched.
Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer particularly noted for his menswear. Armani started his career as designer of shop-windows in a department store and worked his way up to menswear buyer. From 1960 to 1972 he worked as a designer for the well-known house of Nino Cerutti and then worked as an independent designer for a number of fashion houses before founding his own brand. He presented his first collection of men's clothing in 1975, followed by a line for women that same year. Armani gained a wider audience for his work with the popular movie "American Gigolo," in which Richard Gere's character wore chic Armani designs. This was to be the first of many future film collaborations.
Givenchy is a French fashion, accessories and perfume brand, founded by Count Hubert de Givenchy in 1952. The house established a reputation for its unique blend of French elegance and American glamour, embodied particularly in the look of actress Audrey Hepburn. Givenchy created a personal wardrobe for the actress as well as creating costumes for her film roles. The company's chic fashions were favored by many celebrities in the 1960s.
Parfums Givenchy was founded in 1957, and their first fragrance was L'Interdit, again inspired by their most famous client, Audrey Hepburn. Their first men's scent, Monsieur de Givenchy, was launched in 1959.
Givenchy joined the multi-national luxury goods conglomerate LVMH in 1987, and Hubert de Givenchy officially retired from the company in 1995.
The House of Gucci was founded by Guccio Gucci in 1921. Inspired by the beautiful luggage he had seen travelers carrying while working at the Savoy Hotel in London, Gucci returned to Florence with a goal of combining the refined elegance of the wealthy travelers he observed with the fine craftmanship of traditional Florentine artisans.
Guerlain is a legendary French perfume house with 175 years of outstanding business, passion and tradition. Guerlain has always used luxurious and rare materials for its perfumes, such as French vanilla or ylang-ylang from their own plantations in Comoro Islands. Beside that, Guerlain has been an innovator in use of synthetic materials: Jicky (1889) was the first perfume to which Aimé Guerlain added a synthetic component—coumarin.
The Guerlain house was founded by Pierre-François Pascal Guerlain in 1828. Starting with common hygiene products, Guerlain was also creating perfumes for his customers, and over time he developed the business into a highly successful company that became an official perfumer for several European royal courts.
After he died, his son Aimé Guerlain became the main perfumer. His famous perfume Jicky, created in 1889, became the first "modern" perfume. It is also believed that it was he who created the so-called "Guerlinade"—the Guerlain signature base notes used for creation of multiple Guerlain perfumes.
GUESS is an American fashion brand created by brothers Georges, Armand, Paul and Maurice Marciano. Moroccan-born and French-raised, the brothers moved to California in 1977 to launch a business, using seed money provided by the family who owned Jordache Jeans. The first GUESS jeans—the "Marilyn"—were stone-washed and featured distinctive zippers at the ankle. As the designer jeans trend of the late 1970s continued in full swing in the early 1980s, GUESS introduced a captivating product at just the right time. The brand was introduced to the American market through retailer Bloomingdale's.
Issey Miyake is a Japanese fashion designer known for his innovations with fabric and his use of technology to produce interesting and practical garments.
Miyake was born in Hiroshima in 1938, and was a witness and survivor of the atomic bombing of the city during World War II. After studying graphic design at Tama Art University in Tokyo, Mikyake went on to work for some of the most famous couturiers of the 1960s. A move to Paris led to work for Guy Laroche and Givenchy. Another move to New York brought the opportunity to design ready-to-wear for Geoffrey Beene. Miyake returned to Tokyo in 1970, founded the Miyake Design Studio and began producing women's fashions.
Jaguar Cars Ltd, usually referred to as Jaguar, is a manufacturer of luxury cars from the Coventry area in England, UK. As the company is part of the Jaguar Land Rover group, it belongs to the parent company Tata Motors which is based in India.
Sir William Lyons founded the company as manufacturer of sidecars for motorcycles in 1922. The original name of the company was Swallow Sidecar Company. After the Second World War the company name was eventually changed to Jaguar. Jaguar, who had also ventured into the car manufacturing sector, then merged with the British Motor Corporation. In 1984, the year they were listed on the London Stock Exchange, Jaguar became part of the FTSE100 Index until their acquisition by Ford in 1989.
Jaguar's first commercial success after the Second World War was the presentation of a range of appealing sports cars. Despite their high price tags, they were considered as value for money as they came with many of luxury features. Jaguar made a name for themselves by the construction of powerful engines that were built into street cars and Grand Prix winning racing cars. In the 1950s the house managed to win the 24 hours race in Le Mans, France, for four times.
Under the Ford umbrella, Jaguar expanded its product portfolio and launched the legendary cars S-Type and R-Type in 1999 and 2001, respectively. In 2008 Jaguar was sold to the Indian company Tata Motors.
In 1988 Jaguar launched their first fragrance for men. Jaguar for men features notes of orange, lavender, green notes, mandarin orange, cassia, basil, grapefruit, anise and bergamot, cyclamen, nutmeg, carnation, gardenia, cinnamon, jasmine, caraway, sage, rose and geranium, leather, sandalwood, tonka bean, amber, patchouli, musk, oakmoss, vanilla, cedar and tobacco.
Jean Paul Gaultier is a French fashion designer whose first collection was presented in 1976. Having no formal training in fashion design, he began his career at a young age by sending his sketches to famous couture designers of the day. Pierre Cardin and Jean Patou are among the designers who recognized his talent and helped him get started in the business. Known as the enfant terrible of fashion, Gaultier's designs run the gamut from street wear to haute couture. He introduced skirts for men in the 1980s and designed the distinctive cone bra worn by Madonna in the early 1990s.
Jeanne Arthes is part of the Arthes Group, a French perfume company based in Grasse. Founded in 1978, the company began marketing its fragrances in the 1980s throughout the world, and in 1987, secured funding to purchase its own manufacturing facilities in Grasse, the worldwide "cradle of perfume." The company was installed in the Grasse industrial park in 1995, and began negotiating with mass market retailers worldwide for the distribution of its products.
Jeanne Arthes scents are distributed in France through mass-market retails such as Auchan, Leclerc, Magasin U, Carrefour and Intermarche.
The exporting of Jeanne Arthes fragrances through mass market outlets outside France accounts for more than 75% of the company's product turnover.