Elizabeth Arden is an American fragrance, skincare and cosmetics company started by Canadian entrepreneur Florence Nightingale Graham in 1910. Graham used Elizabeth Arden as her professional name as well as the name of her company. The company's initial focus was on skincare and cosmetics, and they opened the first Red Door spa in Manhattan, soon expanding to major cities around the world as their empire grew.
Elizabeth Arden was an innovator in the field of women's cosmetics, introducing eye makeup to American women and pioneering the "makeover." The company's first fragrance was Blue Grass, introduced in 1934.
Elizabeth Arden remained at the helm of the company until her death in 1966. In the last part of the 20th century, the company changed hands several times, finally landing with FFI in 2003, who then adopted the prestigious Elizabeth Arden company name as their own.
The Gap, Inc. is an American clothing retailer based in San Francsico. Gap is just one of the corporation's brand, which also includes Banana Republic, Old Navy, Athleta and Piper Lime.
Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald and Doris Fisher. Capitalizing on the current "counter culture" trend of 1969, the store originally sold Levi's jeans (price at that time: $7 US) and LP records for the youth market. The store was opened with just $63,000 in capital but by 1970, sales topped $2 million, and a second store was opened in San Jose. By 1973, the chain had grown to 25 stores and was spreading across the United States. The company began selling its own private-label clothing in 1974.
The Gap, Inc. acquired Banana Republic, then a small venture that offered safari-themed clothing, in 1983. Banana Republic's image and product lines were made over to become the upscale apparel store known by consumers today. The Gap, Inc. then launched Old Navy in 1994, to cover the lower-priced end of the retail clothing market. Shoe retailer Piperlime was created in 2006, and the company rounded out its offerings with Athleta, an athletic apparel retailer for women, which they acquired in 2009.
Today, The Gap, Inc. has more than 3,100 stores worldwide, covering the United States, United Kingdom (the location of the first international store), Canada, China, France, Ireland, Japan and Italy. Franchise retail outlets are also present in Asia, Australia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and Africa.
The company is known for its quality clothing, the memorable advertising campaigns for all the stores under its corporate umbrella and for its social activism. Gap was a participant in the Product Red project, donating 50% of its Product Red profits to global causes. By 2011, Product Red has raised more than $170 million for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
Fragrances for Gap and its brand Banana Republic are produced on collaboration with Inter Parfums, Inc. The first Gap-branded offerings were four unisex scents—Grass, Earth, Day and Heaven—launched in 1994. The company continues to produce new fragrances for men and women has expanded its fragrance line to include accompanying body care products.
Hermès is a French luxury goods house founded in 1837 by Thierry Hermes. Originally focused on equestrian accessories, the company has evolved over time into leather handbags, scarves, accessories, fashion and fragrance.
For Hermès, the perfume adventure begins in 1951 with Eau d’Hermès, composed by Edmond Roudnitska, one of the greatest creative spirits of the world of fragrances.
Ten years later, the birth of Calèche, the establishment’s first women’s perfume, confirmed the involvement of Hermès in the craft of perfume creation. Since then, fragrance has followed fragrance, each signed by the great names of perfume design. The arrival of Jean-Claude Ellena, in 2004, as the in-house perfumer for Hermès, was a decisive step. As an artist of olfactory emotion, an aesthete who goes beyond scale and material, he shares Hermès' sense of craftsmanship and expertise.
The encounter between Edmond Roudnitska and Émile Hermès (grandson of founder Thierry Hermès) gave birth to Eau d’Hermès, which remains one of the crowning glories of French perfumery.
Anna Sui's collections take you on a creative journey that is unparalleled in the world of fashion. Mixing vintage styles with her current cultural obsessions, she effortlessly makes hip and exuberant original clothes. Anna's constant search for new ideas and challenges keeps her ahead of her times. She's a true trendsetter to whom stylists and editors look for direction.
The original Banana Republic was founded by Mel and Patricia Ziegler in 1978. Originally a chain of just two stores that offered safari and travel-themed clothing, the majority of its sales were generated by its eccentric, hand-illustrated catalog, which presented high-end and unique items with conversational backstories from exotic locations, as well as more common high-volume products deliberately spiced up with a similar treatment. At that time, Banana Republic was known for the safari-themed decor of its stores, often featuring authentic elements, such as real Jeeps, plants and trees, as well as atmospheric elements, such as fog and steam.
The Gap, Inc. acquired Banana Republic in 1983. Banana Republic's image and product lines were subsequently made over to become the upscale apparel store known by consumers today. The Gap, Inc. then launched Old Navy in 1994, to cover the lower-priced end of the retail clothing market. Shoe retailer Piperlime was created in 2006, and the company rounded out its offerings with Athleta, an athletic apparel retailer for women, which they acquired in 2009.
Today, The Gap, Inc. has more than 3,100 stores worldwide. There are 500 Banana Republic stores across the United States, 26 in Canada, and in the 21st century, the brand is expanding internationally with stores in Asia, the Middle East and Europe.
Fragrances for Banana Republic are produced in collaboration with Inter Parfums, Inc. The first scent was unisex-themed "Classic," launched in 1995. The company continues to produce new fragrances for men and women and has expanded its fragrance line to include candles.